This week, Jay and I have a wide-ranging discussion on some of the week’s top compliance related stories. We discuss:

  1. Tom reports on Compliance Week 2017. See his articles in Compliance Week, here and here.
  2. If the DOJ releases new information in the form of the Evaluation of Corporate Compliance Programs, does anyone read it. See article in GIR (sub req’d).
  3. Jay discusses the SCCE event he attended last week in San Francisco. See Jay’s recap in his article I Left My #SCCE Heart in San Francisco or I Love It When A Plan Comes Together!
  4. Was the individual enforcement against the MoneyGram CCO significant or much ado about nothing? See article by Dick Cassin in the FCPA Blog and by Sara Kropt in her Grand Jury Blog.
  5. DOJ will embed prosecutors overseas. See article by Sam Rubenfeld in WSJ Risk and Compliance Journal. See full text of speech by Deputy AG Trevor McFadden by clicking here.
  6. Warriors and Cavs meet in the first time, three consecutive title match run. Tom and Jay consider from the compliance perspective.
  7. Tom announces the release of his new book 2016 – The Year in Corporate FCPA Enforcement. For more information and to purchase, click here.

 

Jay Rosen can be reached:

Mobile (310) 729-6746

Toll Free (866)-201-0903

JRosen@affiliatedmonitors.com

Tom Fox can be reached:

Phone: 832-744-0264

Email: tfox@tfoxlaw.com

The key concept from the Department of Justice’s (DOJ) Evaluation of Corporate Compliance Program (Evaluation) is operationalization. For instance, under the query Shared Commitment is the following question – “How is information shared among different components of the company?” Under the Prong relating to Policies and Procedures the Designing Compliance Policies and Procedures asks, “What has been the company’s process for designing and implementing new policies and procedures? Who has been involved in the design of policies and procedures? Have business units/divisions been consulted prior to rolling them out?” Lastly, under the same Prong is Responsibility for Integration, with the following question “Who has been responsible for integrating policies and procedures?”

These questions point to a Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) or compliance practitioner demonstrating how compliance is being burned into the fabric of an organization. While leadership at and from the top has long been considered by both the DOJ and compliance professionals as a key element to move compliance forward, the Evaluation has also crystalized thinking around compliance leadership from the middle and the bottom. I thought about these concepts when reading a recent Financial Times (FT) article by Andrew Hill, entitled “Leadership from the bottom up”. I was particularly struck by a quote from Shlomo Ben-Hur, a professor at IMD business school, who said, “We teach the top 5 per cent — but the majority of this work is carried out by the other 95 per cent.”

In Ben-Hur’s work he found that many executives came from the middle management ranks. They tended to be persons “with a determination to “take what I have responsibility for and make it truly great.”” Anecdotally, he related “They typically said, ‘I’ve responsibility for the minibus,’ and people then asked them to drive bigger and bigger buses until one day they drove the whole business.”” Think of the military and the responsibility given to front line commanders and how that “is increasingly reflected at large companies.”

The key for companies is that senior management must “find ways to transmit leadership skills to people who do not have ‘leader’ in their job description and will probably never attend a top-level leadership program.” Hill noted, “Ben-Hur’s work has focused on ensuring that managers understand how to assign the right jobs to their team members and motivate them to perform well, using theories of behavioural change that senior executives have typically never learnt on their way to the top. Dedicated managers well below the executive board need to know how to use these tools.”

For the CCO or compliance practitioner, this provides a clear path to help in the operationalizing of compliance by providing the tools to persons far down the organization to put compliance into the operations of a business. One thing Hill writes about is a company should nuture such learning because by doing so, it will both teach practical skills around compliance but also foster a strong internal network of compliance advocates who can move initiatives up and down and organization. Moreover, as these individuals progress through the company ranks, they can take their compliance message with them at each new level.

Building on the writings of Hill and the work of Professor Ben-Hur, my suggestion is to build a Compliance Excellence Center in your company. Bring in middle-managers to focus on understanding not only their roles in compliance but also how to assign the right team members to a compliance initiative and motivate employees going forward. Hill wrote that Airbus has recently established a corporate ‘university’ to spread leadership ideas through the company. Airbus’ theory behind this push is “being a leader isn’t just about being a vice-president; it’s about being able to push the company towards new ways of doing things and executing the things we have to execute. That could [apply to] a blue-collar worker on the shop floor or a VP.”

A key is not simply to train such middle and front line managers on compliance but getting them to consider rollout, effectiveness, testing and improvement. In other words, as Jay Martin would say, it is all about execution. One way to help facilitate this is through exercises using incentives to “make leadership insights stick and change workplace behavior.” Hill also writes that concepts from entrepreneurship can assist in such learning by encouraging managers to “think and act independently” to operationalize compliance. Finally, never forget mentoring as a manner to spread good compliance practices throughout a company if a more formal approach is not possible.

Too often, strategies to move a compliance program or even an initiative come from the top of an organization and are pushed down. To fully operationalize compliance, you must have leadership in compliance further down the organization which (hopefully) has been a part of the design process and can lead the implementation throughout an organization. 

Three Key Takeaways

  1. While tone at the top is critical, the tone at the bottom can actually work to more fully operationalize compliance.
  2. 95% of the work is done at this bottom level.
  3. Use HR to come up with a strategy to move compliance into the bottom for more complete operationalization.

 

This month’s series is sponsored by Advanced Compliance Solutions and its new service offering the “Compliance Alliance” which is a three-step program that will provide you and your team a background into compliance and the FCPA so you can consider how your product or service fits into the needs of a compliance officer. It includes a FCPA and compliance boot camp, sponsorship of a one-month podcast series, and in-person training. Each section builds on the other and provides your customer service and sales teams with the knowledge they need to have intelligent conversations with compliance officers and decision makers. When the program is complete, your teams will be armed with the knowledge they need to sell and service every new client. Interested parties should contact Tom Fox.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One of the ways that Human Resources (HR) can help to operationalize compliance is to assist each level of an organization to have a proper tone. While the top of an organization rightly gets much of attention, the tone about doing business ethically and in in compliance is equally important in the middle of an organization.

A company must have more than simply a good ‘Tone-at-the-Top’; it must move it down through the organization from senior management to middle management and into its lower ranks. This means that one of the tasks of any company, including its compliance organization, is to get middle management to respect the stated ethics and values of a company, because if they do so, this will be communicated down through the organization.

Adam Bryant, in a NYT article, entitled “If Supervisors Respect The Values, So Will Everyone Else”, explored this topic when he interviewed Victoria Ransom, the Chief Executive of Wildfire, a company which provides social media marketing software. Ransom spoke about the role of senior management in communicating ethical values when she was quoted as saying “Another lesson I’ve learned as the company grows is that you’re only as good as the leaders you have underneath you. And that was sometimes a painful lesson. You might think that because you’re projecting our values, then the rest of the company is experiencing the values.” These senior managers communicate what the company’s ethics and values are to middle management. So while tone at the top is certainly important in setting a standard, she came to appreciate that it must move downward through the entire organization. Bryant wrote that Ransom came to realize “that the direct supervisors become the most important influence on people in the company. Therefore, a big part of leading becomes your ability to pick and guide the right people.”

Ransom said that when the company was young and small they tried to codify their company values but they did not get far in the process “because it felt forced.” As the company grew she realized that their values needed to be formalized and stated for a couple of reasons. The first was because they wanted to make it clear what was expected of everyone and “particularly because you want the new people who are also hiring to really know the values.” Another important reason was that they had to terminate “a few people because they didn’t live up to the values. If we’re going to be doing that, it’s really important to be clear about what the values are. I think that some of the biggest ways we showed that we lived up to our values were when we made tough decisions about people, especially when it was a high performer who somehow really violated our values, and we took action.” These actions to terminate had a very large effect on the workforce. Ransom said, “it made employees feel like, “Yeah, this company actually puts its money where its mouth is.””

Ransom sought to ensure that everyone knew what senior management considered when determining whether employees were “living up to the company culture.” The process started when she and her co-founder spent a weekend writing down what they believed the company’s values were. Then they sat down with the employees in small groups to elicit feedback. Her approach was to look for what they wanted in their employees. They came up with six.

  • Passion: Do you really have a thirst and appetite for your work?
  • Humility and Integrity: Treat your co-workers with respect and dignity.
  • Courage: Speak up – if you have a great idea, tell us, and if you disagree with people in the room, speak up.
  • Curiosity: They wanted folks who would constantly question and learn, not only about the company but about the industry.
  • Impact: Are you having an impact at the company?
  • Be outward-looking: Do good and do right by each other.

Ransom had an equally valuable insight when she talked about senior management and ethical values. She believes that “the best way to undermine a company’s values is to put people in leadership positions who are not adhering to the values. Then it completely starts to fall flat until you take action and move those people out, and then everyone gets faith in the values again. It can be restored so quickly. You just see that people are happier.”

What should the tone in the middle be? Put another way, what should middle management’s role be in the company’s compliance program? This role is critical because the majority of company employees work most directly with middle, rather than top management and, consequently, they will take their cues from how middle management will respond to a situation. Moreover, middle management must listen to the concerns of employees. Even if middle management cannot affect a direct change, it is important that employees need to have an outlet to express their concerns. Therefore your organization should train middle managers to enhance listening skills in the overall context of providing training for what she termed their ‘Manager’s Toolkit’. This can be particularly true if there is a compliance violation or other incident that requires some form of employee discipline. Ransom believes that most employees think it important that there be “organizational justice” so that people believe they will be treated fairly. Ransom further explained that without organization justice, employees typically do not understand outcomes but if there is perceived procedural fairness that an employee is more likely accept a decision that they may not like or disagree with.

So think about your lines of communication and your communication skills when conveying your message of compliance down from the top into the middle of your organization.

Three Key Takeaways

  1. While tone at the top is critical, the tone in the middle can actually work to more fully operationalize compliance.
  2. How do you train middle managers?
  3. What compliance tool kit do you provide to middle managers?

 

This month’s series is sponsored by Advanced Compliance Solutions and its new service offering the “Compliance Alliance” which is a three-step program that will provide you and your team a background into compliance and the FCPA so you can consider how your product or service fits into the needs of a compliance officer. It includes a FCPA and compliance boot camp, sponsorship of a one-month podcast series, and in-person training. Each section builds on the other and provides your customer service and sales teams with the knowledge they need to have intelligent conversations with compliance officers and decision makers. When the program is complete, your teams will be armed with the knowledge they need to sell and service every new client. Interested parties should contact Tom Fox.

The role of Human Resources (HR) in anti-corruption compliance programs, is often underestimated. If your company has a culture where compliance is perceived to be in competition or worse yet antithetical to HR, the company certainly is not hitting on all cylinders and maybe moving towards dysfunction. Another way you can operationalize compliance is in HR’s involvement of employee promotion. In Prong 8 of the Evaluation of Corporate Compliance Programs it asks the following question, Have there been any examples of actions taken (e.g., promotions or awards denied) as a result of compliance and ethics considerations?

The 2012 FCPA Guidance expounded further, “[M]ake integrity, ethics and compliance part of the promotion, compensation and evaluation processes as well. For at the end of the day, the most effective way to communicate that “doing the right thing” is a priority is to reward it. Conversely, if employees are led to believe that, when it comes to compensation and career advancement, all that counts is short-term profitability, and that cutting ethical corners is an ac­ceptable way of getting there, they’ll perform to that measure. To cite an example from a different walk of life: a college football coach can be told that the graduation rates of his players are what matters, but he’ll know differently if the sole focus of his contract extension talks or the decision to fire him is his win-loss record. In other words make compliance significant for professional growth in your organization and it will help to drive the message of doing business in compliance.

I thought about these concepts when I read an article in the Corner Office column of the Sunday New York Times (NYT), where columnist Adam Bryant interviewed Sally Smith, the Chief Executive of Buffalo Wild Wings, the restaurant chain. She had some interesting concepts not only around leadership but thoughts on the hiring and promotion functions, which are useful for any Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) or compliance practitioner striving to drive compliance into the DNA of a company.

Here Smith had some thoughts put in a manner on promotions not often articulated. One of her cornerstones is to search out the best person for any open position, whether through an external hire or internal promotion. Bryant stated that Smith said “We use the phrase “wait for great” in hiring. When you have an open position, don’t settle for someone who doesn’t quite have the cultural match or skill set you want. It’s better to wait for the right person.”

Smith articulated some different skills that she uses to help make such a determination. Once a potential hire or promotion gets to her level for an interview, she will assume that person is technically competent but “I assume that you’re competent, but I’ll probe a bit to make sure you know what you’re talking about. And then I’ll say, “If I asked the person in the office next to you about you, what would they say?””

Passion and curiosity are other areas that Smith believes is important to probe during the hiring or promotion process. In the area of passion, Smith will “Often ask, “What do you do in your free time?” If they’re passionate about something, I know they’re going to bring that passion to the workplace.” Smith believes curiosity is important because it helps to determine whether a prospective hire will fit into the Buffalo Wild Wings culture. Bryant wrote, “I look for curiosity too, because if you’re curious and thinking about how things work, you’ll fit well in our culture. So I’ll ask about the last book they read, or the book that had the greatest impact on them.” Smith also inquires about jobs or assignments that went well and “ones that went off the tracks. You ask enough questions around those and you can determine whether they’re going to need a huge support team.”

I found these insights by Smith very useful for a compliance practitioner and the hiring and promotion functions in a compliance program. By asking questions about compliance you can not only find out the candidates thoughts on compliance but you will also begin to communicate the importance of such precepts to them in this process. Now further imagine how powerful such a technique could be if a Chief Executive asked such questions around compliance when they were involved in the hiring or promotion process. Talk about setting a tone at the top from the start of someone’s career at that company. But the most important single item I gleaned from Bryant’s interview of Smith was the “Wait for great” phrase. If this were a part of the compliance discussion during promotion or hiring that could lead to having a workforce committed to doing business in the right way.

Three Key Takeaways

  1. Denying a promotion or award due to an employee’s ethical lapses.
  2. Use promotions to reinforce your company’s commitment to compliance and ethics.
  3. Should you wait for great?

 

This month’s series is sponsored by Advanced Compliance Solutions and its new service offering the “Compliance Alliance” which is a three-step program that will provide you and your team a background into compliance and the FCPA so you can consider how your product or service fits into the needs of a compliance officer. It includes a FCPA and compliance boot camp, sponsorship of a one-month podcast series, and in-person training. Each section builds on the other and provides your customer service and sales teams with the knowledge they need to have intelligent conversations with compliance officers and decision makers. When the program is complete, your teams will be armed with the knowledge they need to sell and service every new client. Interested parties should contact Tom Fox.

I am excited to announce at Compliance Week 2017 the publication of my latest book 2016-The Year in Corporate FCPA Enforcement: Cardinal and Provident, published by Compliance Week. In it I take a look the most prolific year in FCPA enforcement and what it means for the compliance practitioner.

We have never seen and may well never see again a year of FCPA corporate enforcements as we did in 2016. The Department of Justice (DOJ) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) combined twenty-seven corporate enforcement actions and nearly $2.48bn in total fines and penalties, the highest since the statute’s enactment in 1977. The vast majority of that amount, some 90 percent, was generated by a few very large and significant FCPA enforcement actions involving the following entities: VimpelCom, Och-Ziff, Embraer, JPMorgan, Odebrecht/Braskem, and Teva. While these cases all involved substantial, company-wide bribery schemes, which led to their massive penalties, the majority of 2016’s FCPA enforcement actions involved relatively small-to-medium-sized penalties which involved less systemic, routine bribery schemes. Yet these smaller cases usually provided some of the most interesting fact patterns, which can be studied by chief compliance officers (CCOs) and compliance professionals to help prevent and detect bribery in their organizations.

What do these enforcement actions signify? More importantly what are the lessons to be drawn from these cases for compliance going forward? What about the FCPA Pilot Program, what does it portend for the future. Finally I consider the public comments of the regulators around FCPA enforcement and compliance. You can parse the facts and figures but if you want to understand what 2016 means going forward for the compliance profession, this is the book for you. If you are a compliance professional, this is the single must have  book around the the most prolific year in FCPA enforcement history.

You can purchase of copy of the book, from Compliance Week by clicking here.

If you are attending Compliance Week 2017, drop by the Compliance Week booth for an autographed copy!